International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health

Review

Use of antibiotics in livestock in Nigeria: Curbing antimicrobial resistance and developing a national regulatory guideline towards monitoring antibiotic use in animal and animal foods

Martins O. Emeje1,2⁎, Simisola Oloye1, Mariam Bubakari2 and Mojisola Adeyeye2


1,2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Raw Materials Development, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and development – NIPRD,  Abuja,  Federal  Capital City,  Nigeria;
2National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author Email: martinsemeje(at)yahoo.com

Tel.: +234 803 703 5738

ORCID

Martins O. Emeje

Simisola Oloye

Mariam Bubakari

Mojisola Adeyeye


Article Number: irjpeh.22.007  |   Pages: 55-66  |   Vol.9 (2), April 2022   |   DOI: https://doi.org/10.15739/irjpeh.22.007

 Received: February 28, 2022  Accepted: April 6, 2022  Published: April 15, 2022

Abstract

Despite all efforts and resources channelled towards the fight against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), it manages to remain one of the top public health challenges of the 21st century. It is almost as if the problem itself has developed resistance. Numerous researches have been conducted to unravel its persistence and seek ways to reduce or eradicate AMR. This has increased awareness and emphasized the urgency to which effective measures have to be taken to alleviate AMR. Among the factors discovered to contribute to this menace is the use of antibiotics in livestock/animal rearing. It has come to light that most antibiotics used in animal rearing are done with little or no expert consultation and some of these antimicrobials are available over the counter in many countries. Lack of awareness, unavailability of agricultural extension services, inadequate instructions supplied by manufacturers, and the need for profit by animal rearers culminates in the irrational use of antibiotics. To solve this problem, the decision for antimicrobial use in livestock production should primarily lie with veterinarians or agricultural workers who can effectively diagnose diseases in such animals and recommend the appropriate treatment, dose, and treatment duration. Proper control of drug use by regulatory authorities and agricultural workers, observation of the prescribed withdrawal period for drugs, educating local farmers, as well as monitoring  the antibiotic residues, will go a long way in curbing the menace of antibiotic resistance. This is what this review addresses.

Keywords:

Antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics, livestock, farm animals, growth promoters

How to Cite this Article

Emeje MO, Oloye S, Bubakari M Adeyeye M (2022). Use of antibiotics in livestock in Nigeria: Curbing antimicrobial resistance and developing a national regulatory guideline towards monitoring antibiotic use in animal and animal foods. Int. Res. J. Pub. Environ. Health 9(2):55-66.

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.


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