International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health

Original Research Article

Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Hepatitis B Virus isolated from HIV patients attending referral center in Abuja

Charity Ndidi Obum-Nnadi*1, Chika Maureen Ezenwa2, John Chima Ndubisi3, Christy Chinyere Fredrick4, Nathaniel Ejikeme Onyenwe5, Ndidi Blessing Ohabughiro2, Kelechukwu Sylvester Nwokorie1, Obum Okechukwu Nnadi2, Christie Amechi Oyeka6 and Ikechukwu Okoli6

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Veritas University Abuja, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Federal University of Technology Lafia, Nassarawa, Nigeria.
4Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, College of health Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.
5Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.
6Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author Email: n_charitez(at)

Charity Ndidi Obum-Nnadi

Chika Maureen Ezenwa

John Chima Ndubisi

Christy Chinyere Fredrick

Nathaniel Ejikeme Onyenwe

Ndidi Blessing Ohabughiro

Kelechukwu Sylvester Nwokorie

Obum Okechukwu Nnadi

Christie Amechi Oyeka

Ikechukwu Okoli

Article Number: irjpeh.23.002  |   Pages: 17-26  |   Vol. 10 (1), March 2023   |   DOI:

 Received: January 5, 2023  Accepted: March 6, 2023  Published: March 25, 2023


The co-infection of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major challenges in the management of HIV. Both viral infections are among the clinical conditions of public health importance with high mortality and morbidity worldwide, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. They share common route of transmission which puts HIV positive individuals at risk of co-infection. It is therefore, necessary to document the molecular epidemiological dynamics of HBV among HIV patients in HIV referral center in Abuja, Nigeria. Using stratified random sampling, 200 HIV infected individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy ART were sampled in a referral center in Abuja, Nigeria and were evaluated for HBV using Rapid Test Device (RTD) strip for HBsAg, HBV Combo Rapid Test Cassette 5 Panel HBV. HBV and HIV viral DNA and RNA were extracted and characterized genotypically for HBV genotype A, B, C, D, E, and F specific genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. Obtained sequences were edited using the bioinformatics software. The overall prevalence of HBV among the study population was 10.0% (20/200), 15.0% (30/200), and 20.0% (40/200), for RTD strip, RTD HBV cassette and PCR, respectively. The genotypic characterization is HBV genotype E. Based on the study; the genotypic characterization is 100% of the study population. Gender, occupation, marital status, level of education and place of residence were the risk determinants of HBV among study population. The relatively high prevalence of HBV/HIV coinfection and the presence of circulating HBV genotype E has provided important epidemiological information on the molecular characteristics of HBV in HIV-infected in Nigeria, and this has important clinical relevance in the management of HBV/HIV co-infection. Also, PCR has proven to be the most sensitive technique in the diagnosis of HBV. The findings of this research confirm that HBV is a major co-morbid infection and a threat to HIV patients. The PCR is the best method of diagnosis. The health sector, federal and state ministry of health should improve in providing PCR machines, creating awareness and vaccinating the populace against HBV to reduce the prevalence of these infections.

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Co-infection, referral centre, prevalence

How to Cite this Article

Obum-Nnadi CN, Ezenwa CM, Ndubisi JC, Fredrick CC, Onyenwe NE, Ohabughiro NB, Nwokorie KS, Nnadi OO, Oyeka CA, Okoli I(2023). Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Hepatitis B Virus isolated from HIV patients attending referral center in Abuja.Int. Res. J. Pub. Environ. Health. 10(1):17-26. DOI:

© 2023 The authors.
This is an Open Access article that is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License  and the Budapest Open Access Initiative , which allow unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

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