International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health

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Onoja M. A

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Original Research Article

Assessment of heavy metals in water leaf (Talinum Triagulare) cultivated on Fadama soils through irrigation in Nigeria

1Bukar* P. H. and 2Onoja M. A.

1Niigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology Zaria,Nigeria
2Ahmadu Bello University Zaria,Nigeria

*Corresponding Author Email: paul.hena(at)

Bukar P.H

Onoja M. A

Article Number: irjpeh.20.011  |   Pages: 74-80  |   Vol. 7 (3), June 2020   |   DOI:

 Received: January 15, 2020  Accepted: April 6, 2020  Published: June 5, 2020


In most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, cultivation of vegetables through irrigation on farmlands near water channels or streams that passes through urban areas during dry season are common practice but in most cases the soils may be contaminated and the contaminants could be absorbed by the plants. In this work, assessment of heavy metal pollutants namely Aluminum, Cobalt, Iron, Lanthanum, Manganese, Chromium, Samarium, Scandium, Rubidium, Thorium, Vanadium and Zinc in water leaf (Talinum Triangulare) samples was done using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The samples were obtained from fadama farm lands used for dry season farming through irrigation along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam in Maiduguri the Borno state capital in north east of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the bioaccumulation of trace and heavy metal pollutants in water leaf vegetables, ascertain the health risk associated with the consumption of the vegetables and to compare the concentration values with the available Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL) recommended for consumable vegetables. The result obtained indicates that the concentrations of the elements varied from values below detection (BDL)to maximum as presented. Aluminum ranged from 880 ± 13 ppm to 1412 ± 25 ppm, Cobalt from 0.41 ± 0.04 ppm to 12 ± 0.82, Iron from 361 ± 38ppm to 2134 ± 60 ppm, Lanthanum from0.84 ± 0.04ppm to 2.15±0.06ppm, Manganese from 122.1 ± 0.04 ppm to 342 ± 1ppm, Chromium BDL to 82 ± 23ppm, Rubidium from 6.2 ± 0.6ppm to 48 ± 2.0 ppm, Samarium from 0.09 ± 0.01 ppm to 0.264 ± 0.01 ppm, Vanadium from BDL to 1.61 ± 0.35 ppm, Scandium from 0.07 ± 0.01ppm to 37.1 ± 1.40 ppm, Thorium from BDL to 28 ± 5 ppm, and Zinc from 25 ± 3 ppm to 42 ± 4 ppm. The result obtained showed that the maximum concentrations of Iron, Chromium, Cobalt and Manganese exceed the MPL values recommended by FAO/WHO of 425.5, 1.5, 0.3, and 25.95 respectively. Therefore, the continuous consumption of water leaf cultivated in the study area constitute health risk due to the fact that these heavy metals can accumulate in some sensitive body organs with time.


Assessment, bioaccumulation, metal pollutants, irrigation, Fadama soils, water leaf

How to Cite this Article

Bukar PH, Onoja MA (2020). Assessment of heavy metals in water leaf (Talinum Triagulare) cultivated on Fadama soils through irrigation in Nigeria. Int. Res. J. Public Environ. Health 7(3):74-80.

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