International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review

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June 2023;10(2)


Original Research Article

Perception of parents and teachers on practice of corporal punishment in primary schools in Rwanda: Focus on disciplinary processes

1*Ganira Khavugwi Lilian, 1Ila Walter Onyango Okech and 1Odundo Paul Amollo

1Department of Educational Communication and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. P.O BOX 30197-00100 Nairobi, Kenya.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: kganira(at)

Article Number:  |   Pages:  |     |   DOI:

 Received: June 3, 2019  Accepted: July 14, 2019  Published: July 21, 2019


Corporal punishment is executed all over the world despite governments’ and legal bodies’ initiatives to completely eradicate the practice for effective functioning of children. Execution of corporal punishment violates children’s right to freedom from violence, right to health, growth and development. Human rights groups, International bodies and professionals continuously advocate against use of corporal punishment in homes, schools and child caring institutions for well being of children. This is based on the premise that Corporal punishment in many countries has become a custom in schools and homes where children’s rights and freedoms are violated and abused. In Rwanda, corporal punishment targeting children at home and in schools is rampant and has been cited in various documents as a notable challenge facing preventing and responding to child abuse. This study examined perceptions of teachers and parents on practice of corporal punishment in primary schools in Rwanda. Both primary and secondary data were used in the study. Secondary data was obtained through review of critical policy documents. Using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Findings showed that practice of corporal punishment is considered appropriate in educational settings and is widespread in homes and communities for correction of disruptive behaviour. This study recommends for adoption positive discipline which includes; introduction of sustainable civic awareness of long term effects of corporal punishment and adoption of non-violent, acceptable, effective and nurturing parenting styles. Further, Rwanda should introduce public awareness and social mobilization programmes to sensitise schools and communities on harmful effects of corporal punishment. Further studies should be conducted on long-term effects of corporal punishment.

Keywords: Corporal punishment, disciplinary processes, perceptions, parents, teachers.

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