International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review

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June 2023;10(2)


Original Research Article

Effects of adult learners’ entrepreneurial education on intention in Tanzania: An arbitrating role of self-efficacy

Mbowe Ramadhani Kabung’a

Institute of Adult Education, Department of Research, Publication, and Consultancy, Box 20369- Dar-es-salaam Tanzania.

Author’s E-mail: mbowe69(at)

Mbowe Ramadhani Kabung’a

Article Number: IJEPRR.23.002  |   Pages: 19-32  |   Vol. 10 (1), February 2023   |   DOI:

 Received: October 12, 2022  Accepted: December 27, 2022  Published: February 2, 2023


In responding to the consequence of unemployment among higher-learning graduates, higher-learning institutions must prepare students to face the challenges in their life after completing their studies. Graduates must be equipped with the necessary skillset supported by their confidence associated with the feeling and belief of individuals achieving their personal goals. The entrepreneurial education (EE) taught should therefore, help graduates to create jobs but not be job seekers. The study explored the effects of EE on adult learners’ entrepreneurial intention under the arbitrating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) emerging out of the EE taught in Tanzania, using a convenient sampling technique. The study used a structured guided questionnaire to collect primary data from 210 respondents selected from 291 Institute of Adult Education (IAE) entrepreneurial programmes of adult learners in Tanzania. The Data was subjected to the structural equation model technique facilitated by Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS 20.0) software to verify the hypothesis relationships. The study found a positive and significant effect of EE on ESE. In addition, a positive and significant effect of adult learners’ ESE on entrepreneurial intention (EI) was found. The findings further show the positive and significant effect of EE on adult learners’ EI. Furthermore, the adult learners’ ESE had positive and significant indirect effects on the relationship between EE and adult learners’ EI. The findings suggest that the individual’s ESE towards IE was affected by the discrepancy in the EE. Therefore, promoting EI among adult learners requires module developers to design module content that reflects practical-oriented and convenient adult learners – learning centered and the use of successful entrepreneurs to stimulate ESE.

Keywords: Adult learners, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intention, self-efficacy, arbitrating role

How to Cite this Article

Mbowe RK (2023). Effects of adult learners’ entrepreneurial education on intention in Tanzania: An arbitrating role of self-efficacy.Int. J. Educ. Pol. Res. Rev.11 (1):19-32. DOI:

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.

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