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S.A. Ostroumov

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Original Research Article

Phytotests for assessing phytotoxicity of “Blue moon” liquid detergent: Lens culinaris seeds

Xiang Cai1,2*and S.A. Ostroumov1,2

1Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Biomembranes, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation.
2Laboratory of Ecological Department, School of Biology, Shenzhen MSU-BIT University, Shenzhen 518172, China.

*Corresponding Author Email: caisan_100(at)

Tel. (86) 18859822190

Xiang Cai

S.A. Ostroumov

Article Number: ibspr.21.010  |   Pages: 93-100  |   Vol. 8 (3), October 2021   |   DOI:

 Received: August 12, 2021  Accepted: October 1, 2021  Published: October 10, 2021


The phytotests for phytotoxicity assessment is to analyze the developmental responses of plant seeds to hazardous materials in the environment. The effectiveness of the phytotests in testing the varied contaminants was validated and reported. However, the phytotoxicity of synthetic laundry detergents (SLDs) is poorly understood. Accordingly, “Blue moon” liquid laundry detergents (“Blue moon”-LLD) was targeted as a contaminant in study. Lentil (Lens culinaris) tests were used to test the phytotoxicity of “Blue moon”-LLD. Consequences showed percent germination of seed (PGS, ca. 0%-80%) and root length (RL, ca. 0-5 mm) decreased significantly toward the increase in concentration (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0%) of “Blue moon”-LLD after 72-h. Exposure to the “Blue moon”-LLD throughout 96-h further lowered PGS (ca. 0%-90%) and RL (ca. 0-9 mm). Correlation analysis proved a negative linearity (k = -155.84, R2 = 0.97, 72-h; k = -173.12, R2 = 0.98, 96-h) between test concentrations and PGS and between the concentrations and RL (k = -10.4, R2 = 0.91, 72-h; k = -15.48, R2 = 0.94, 96-h). It manifested that the phytotoxicity of “Blue moon”-LLD was a concentration-dependent toxicity. The study is aimed at validating the sensitivity, effectiveness, alternative use of animal toxicity tests and inexpensive phytotesting protocol for phytotoxicity assessment.


hytotests, “Blue moon”, seed germination, root elongation, Lens culinaris

How to Cite this Article

Cai X, Ostroumov SA (2021). Phytotests for assessing phytotoxicity of “Blue moon” liquid detergent: Lens culinaris seeds.Issues in Biol. Sci. Pharma. Res. 9(3):93-100.

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.

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