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Sonia Hamlaoui
Yosra Hamdi
Ezzedine Aouani
Sana Mezghani

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Original Research Article

Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) protects against toxicity induced by garlic in rat brain

Sonia Hamlaoui1*, Yosra Hamdi1, Ezzedine Aouani2 and Sana Mezghani1

1Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie Fonctionnelle et Pathologies, Département des Sciences Biologiques, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis. Rectorat El Manar Tunis, Tunisie.
2Laboratoire des Substances Bioactives, Centre de Biotechnologie, Technopole Borj-Cedria, Rectorat de Carthage, Tunisie.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sonia_hamlaoui(at)

Tel: +216 98 96 81 13

Sonia Hamlaoui

Yosra Hamdi

Ezzedine Aouani

Sana Mezghani

Article Number: ibspr.21.001  |   Pages: 1-11  |   Vol. 9 (1), January 2021   |   DOI:

 Received: October 22, 2020  Accepted: December 22, 2020  Published: January 4, 2021


Garlic is a medicinal plant with many therapeutic properties. Intraperitoneal injection of garlic induces a harmful stress to health. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) have multiple beneficial effects even when used at high dosage. Aim: This work studies the ability of GSSE to correct the harmful effects of intraperitoneal injection of garlic on rat brain. Materials and methods: Rats were intraperitoneally administered with garlic extract (5 g/kg body weight) or GSSE (500 mg/kg body weight) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for one month. Brain oxidative stress markers and antioxidant status were evaluated. Results: Garlic increased malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein, calcium, magnesium, free iron, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide) levels. However, it decreased antioxidant enzymes as catalase and superoxide dismutase. Garlic also altered brain metabolic enzymes activities by increasing lactate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidase and lipase but it dropped creatinekinase and acethylcholinesterase. GSSE alone decreased malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, magnesium and hydrogen peroxide levels but increased antioxidant enzymes activities. GSSE in co-treatment with garlic removed almost all the deleterious effects of garlic. Conclusion: High garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state in brain via the Fenton reaction between hydrogen peroxide and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.


Garlic, grape seed and skin extract, brain, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, intracellular mediators, metabolic enzymes.

How to Cite this Article

Hamlaoui S, Hamdi Y, Aouani E, Mezghani S (2021). Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) protects against toxicity induced by garlic in rat brain.Issues in Biol. Sci. Pharma. Res. 9(1):1-11

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.

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