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Concentration of container flows in the port phase: the case of the U.S West and East Coast port ranges

1Chlomoudis Constantinos and 1*Styliadis Theodore

1University of Piraeus, Department of Maritime Studies, Greece.

Corresponding Author Email: th.styliadis(at)

Article Number:  |   Pages:  |     |   DOI:

 Received: September 24, 2018  Accepted: November 15, 2018  Published: January 28, 2019


The pressure of competition along with the incentive to extent control over ever larger and more complex logistic chains have strongly encouraged players to expand their services and scale of operations through vertical and horizontal integration, alliances and synergies. Evolutions in liner shipping as well as in terminal operations have led to a process of reorganization in both respective markets, increasing the concentration of market players. To this end, the aim of this paper is to investigate whether these concentration and centralization phenomena observed in the above markets extend also over the port phase, with selected ports concentrating large shares of container volumes. By employing several concentration methodologies, namely the CR4 and CR8, the HHI, the Gini Coefficient and the Lorenz concentration curves, as well as a Shift Share analysis, we investigate the evolution of concentration levels in U.S West and East Coast port ranges for the period between 2005 and 2015. As our results indicate, contrary to prior studies conducted, the U.S port ranges have evolved from deconcentrated towards, highly and moderately concentrated respectively. As such, results are relevant for policy makers and port experts, as they provide an up to date picture of the U.S port ranges.

Container ports, concentration, concentration indexes, U.S West and East port range

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