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J Wangdi
T Dema
M Karma
P Bhujel

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J Wangdi
T Dema
M Karma
P Bhujel

Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research
Available online at
Vol.2(7),pp.062-068, August 2014
ISSN 2350-1588
Article ID BSPR037,07 pages
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 International License

Original Research Article

The compositional quality of cows milk in Bhutan

*Wangdi,J.,Dema, T.,Karma, M. and Bhujel, P

RNR-RDC, Jakar, Bumthang, Bhutan.

*Corresponding Author Email: jmewangdi(at)
Tel.:+975 77653485

date Received:     date Accepted: September 3, 2014     date Published:


The study was conducted to understand and document baseline information on the compositional quality of milk produced in Bhutan. Majority of milk are produced by the rural farmers rearing different dairy breeds and their crossbreds.  The observed overall mean milk composition for the milk in Bhutan are 5.02 % fat, 8.68 % SNF, density of 1.029 Kg/L, freezing point of -.580 °C, 3.27 % protein, 5.48 % lactose and 0.68% other solids. The mean percent fat and protein recorded are 4.74 & 3.08; 4.99 & 3.23; 5.67 & 3.65; 5.15 & 3.02; 5.53 & 3.67; 5.08 & 3.15 and 5.07 and 2.98, for BSx, Jx, Mx, LC, PJ, Nublang and HFx, respectively. Added water in milk was encountered across the study locations with exception to Trongsa district. In overall, mean added water of 0.89 % was recorded in milk produced in Bhutan. Initially, Monggar district has the highest % added water of about 6.01 %; however, by the end of study period the % added water gradually decreased and reached to about 0.3 % by end of the study. There was significant differences (p<0.05) in the milk compositions among different study locations and among the different dairy breeds and their crossbreds. Likewise, a significant difference in milk composition was also observed between different seasons in this study. The protein to milk fat ratio (0.65) was found comparatively low, indicating milk protein depression in milk produced in Bhutan. It was also observed that most milk components with exception to lactose were found higher in improved cattle breeds reared in Bhutan than those reared in other countries.

Key words: mean daily milk yield, Nublang, protein to milk fat ratio

Wangdi et al