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J Stephenson
M Vaganay
R Cameron

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J Stephenson
M Vaganay
R Cameron

International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health
Vol.2 (9),pp. 127-134,September 2015
ISSN 2360-8803
Available online at
Article 15/ID/JPRH064/08/pages
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.

Short Communication

Impact of secondary stressors on urban and rural communities affected by repeated flooding and the potential resulting health implications: A pilot study

J. Stephenson*, M. Vaganay and R. Cameron

School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland

*Corresponding Author Email:stephenson-j3(at)

Tel.: +442890368752

date Received: August 10, 2015     date Accepted: September 3, 2015     date Published: September 14, 2015


Secondary stressors can be defined as ongoing, unresolved factors, indirectly associated with a defined prior event or events, resulting in emotional strain among affected individuals and acting as obstacles in a return to what is perceived as normality. An example is the complications relating to flood repair works. An important gap in flood research to date is studying the impact of secondary stressors specifically on flood victims and on different types of communities, for example urban and rural areas. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and the completion of a subsequent questionnaire with residents from urban and rural areas affected by reoccurring flood events. Results: Key secondary stressors included damage to property and possessions, repair works, fear of reoccurring flooding and lack of confidence in or help from agencies. Half of the participants achieved an Impact of Event score which indicated they had at least some of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with 4 residents obtaining a score above the cut-off point for a probable diagnosis of PTSD. Discussion: Residents who have experienced reoccurring flooding are affected by multiple stressors simultaneously, thus expedient settlement of resolvable issues such as insurance claims cannot be underestimated as it minimises the extent of stress placed on those affected. It is essential to conclude which secondary stressors have the most detrimental impact on residents, as they are the stressors most likely to contribute to flood related health conditions and may require support to resolve. Future quantitative work will determine if communities with different geographical locations experience similar stressors.

Key words: Flooding, secondary stressors, health, flood risk, urban, rural

Stephenson et al