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DA Nakhla  
S El Haggar

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DA Nakhla
S El Haggar

International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research
Vol.2 (9), pp.321-328, September 2014
ISSN 2350-1561
Article 14/ID/ JPR141, 08 pages
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.15739/IJAPR.003
Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 International License



Review

A proposal to environmentally balanced sugarcane industry in Egypt

Dalia A. Nakhla*1 and Salah El Haggar2

1Environmental Engineering Program, School of Sciences and Engineering, American University in Cairo, AUC Avenue. P.O. Box 74. New Cairo 11835, Egypt.
2Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Sciences and Engineering, American University in Cairo, Egypt.

*Corresponding Author Email:  danakhla(at)aucegypt.edu
Tel.:+201224483493



date Received:     date Accepted: September 10, 2014     date Published:


 Abstract

Sugarcane industry in Egypt goes back to the year 710 AD.  Cane plantations are concentrated in the area of Upper Egypt. The total amount of cane cultivated in Upper Egypt is about 16 million tons per year.  There are eight sugarcane producing factories in Egypt, most of them located close to the cultivations. Sugarcane production generates considerable amount of waste during the harvesting phase of cane plantation and during the industrial phase of sugarcane milling. The sugarcane industry in Egypt can be currently defined as an open industrial system that consumes material and energy and creates products and wastes. For sugarcane industry to become a sustainable industry or a green industry, its production process has to be closed over its lifecycle in order to reach zero waste. Its wastes, residues and by-products should not be burned or disposed but should be rather treated as raw material for other industries. The sugarcane industry in Egypt needs to introduce the concept of industrial ecology or environmentally balanced industrial complex (EBIC) to close the material’s loop. This paper gives a background of sugarcane industry in Egypt for the different stages of production of sugar.  It also reviews the different options for reuse of the produced by-products and residues as practiced in Egypt -. It then proposes an approach for introducing the concept of environmentally balanced industrial complex to sugar cane industry in Egypt to approach zero pollution.


Key words: environmental balanced industrial complex, sugarcane industrial waste, industrial ecology, green industry


Nakhla and El Haggar