International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health
Article ID JPEH/14/045/,15 pages
Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 International License
Original Research Paper
Toxic element contamination in soil and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) after fertigation with sugar mill effluent
Accepted 4 June, 2014
Vinod Kumar* and A.K. Chopra
Agro-ecology and Pollution Research Laboratory Department of Zoology and Environmental Science Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar-249404 (Uttarakhand), India.
*Corresponding Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination of heavy metals in soil and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) after fertigation with sugar mill effluent. The plants of S. oleracea (var. Hybrid-7) were grown in two seasons i.e. the rainy and winter season during the year 2011 and 2012. Different doses of sugar mill effluent viz. 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were used for the fertigation of S. oleracea along with bore well water (control). The results revealed that sugar mill effluent significantly (P<0.01) increased the nutrients and heavy metals viz. cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in the soil. The contents of metals were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The most agronomic performance and biochemical components of S. oleracea were found at 25% concentrations of sugar mill effluent in both seasons. The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn in S. oleracea were increased from 5% to 100% concentrations of sugar mill effluent in both seasons. Among different metals the contents of Cu, Mn and Zn except Cd and Cr in were noted under the permissible limit of FAO/WHO standards. The order of contamination factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Mn>Cr>Cd>Zn>Cu for soil and Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd>Cr for S. oleracea plants after fertigation with sugar mill effluent. Thus, fertigation increased concentration of heavy metals in soil and S. oleracea. Therefore, regular monitoring related to the effluent fertigation and contamination of soil and S. oleracea is needed.
Key words: Spinacia oleracea, agronomical characteristics, contamination factor, ferti-irrigation, heavy metals, sugar mill effluent