International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review
Vol.3 (3), pp. 43-55 May, 2016
Available online at https://www.journalissues.org/IJEPRR/
Article ID:/16/EPRR/034/ 13 pages
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.
Original Research Article
The relationship between self-efficacy and vulnerability to HIV infection among university student-teachers in Uganda and Tanzania
Loyce K Kobusingye* and Kitila K A Mkumbo
Department of Psychology and Curriculum Studies, School of Education,University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
*Corresponding Author Email: email@example.com
The study examined the applicability of the social cognitive theory in investigating the relationship between self-efficacy and vulnerability to HIV infection among university student-teachers. The research participants involved a sample of 559 undergraduate university student-teachers in two universities, that is, 262 from Makerere University College of Education and External Studies in Uganda (MUCEES) and 295 from the Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) in Tanzania. They were subjected to two questionnaires, that is, a self-efficacy scale for HIV risk behaviours with items on condom purchase and usage efficacy, communication and confidence to avert pressures that can lead to sexual practice: and a vulnerability to HIV infection scale with items on comprehensive HIV knowledge and HIV-related behaviours. Results from the study show that there is an inverse/negative relationship between self-efficacy and vulnerability to HIV infection. However, the findings show that although the relationship between self-efficacy and vulnerability to HIV infection is inverse, it is not statistically significant (p=0.663>0.05). Hence, although an increase in self-efficacy leads to a decrease in vulnerability to HIV infection, it is not a significant factor in explaining vulnerability to HIV infection. These findings confirm the assertions and predictions of the social cognitive theory which argues that if young people have a high sense of self, they are able to practice behaviours that reduce their vulnerability to HIV infection, because people with high self-efficacy are more likely to view difficult tasks as something to be mastered rather than something to be avoided.
Key words: Self-efficacy, vulnerability, HIV, student-teachers, university, Uganda, Tanzania