Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research
Vol.7(2),pp.16-24, August 2019
Available online at https://www.journalissues.org/IBSPR/
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.
Original Research Article
Acute and subacute toxicity of an aqueous extract of Piper umbellatum (Piperaceae) leaves in rats
Akoua Jeanne Kanga*1, Kacou Marius J. Djetouan1, Kouao Augustin Amonkan1, Koffi Bruno Koko1, Brou André Konan1 and Séraphin Kati-Coulibaly1
1Laboratoire de Nutrition et Pharmacologie,Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences ; 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire,Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny d’Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
*Corresponding Author E-mail: kjeanneakoua(at)gmail.com
Tel : +225 08089628
Piper umbellatum is widely used for treatment of various ailments in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate potential toxicity effect of aqueous extract of Piper umbellatum (Piperaceae) leaves in rats. During acute toxicity study, female rats were orally administered with EAPU at single doses of 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg according to OECD Guidelines 423. For the sub-acute toxicity EAPU were so orally administered doses of 400, 800 and 1000 mg/Kg daily for 28 days of both sexes except for the control group which received NaCl 0.9 %. Animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Kidney, liver and heart were harvested and evaluated for histopathological changes.The acute toxicity study revealed no lethal effects and behavioural signs of toxicity at the tested doses indicating that LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg. In sub-acute study, EAPU induced significant (p < 0.05) reduction of the body weight only in female and no significant change relative organe weigth, food and water intake in comparaison to the control group on the both sexe. There is significant increases in the levels of WBC at 1000 mg/kg of the extract only in the female. In respect of liver function parameters, significant reductions in gamma glutamyl transferase and bllirubin levels respectively at doses of 400 and 1000 mg/kg relative to control is observed. Compared to control, the extract significantly decreases dose dependently the level of triglyceride only in the female (p < 0.05 ; p < 0.01 ; p < 0.001). There is significant decreases in the levels of urea in both sexes and creatinin only in the male rat. Histological study shows normal structure of liver, kidneys and heart of control and treated rats. Results indicate that oral doses of aqueous extract of Piper umbellatum is relatively safe in rats.
Key words: Piper umbellatum, acute and subacute toxicity, haematological and biochemical parameters, histopathological examination