International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research
Article ID JPR058/14/12 Pages
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Original Research Paper
Spatial-temporal dynamics of population structure for macro invertebrates families in a continuum dam – effluent – river in irrigated system. Volta Basin (Burkina Faso)
Accepted 25 April, 2014
SANOGO Souleymane1, KABRE Tinkoudgou Jean André*1 and CECCHI Philippe2
1Laboratoire de Recherche et de Formation en Pêche et Faune (LaRFPF/ IDR), Université de Bobo-Dioulasso,BP. 1091 Bobo 01, Burkina Faso.
2Institut de Recherche et Développement, France.
*Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
A monthly sampling of benthic macro invertebrates was carried out at the hydro-agricultural dam of Boura in the Volta watershed basin (Burkina) during the period of February through July 2012 in order to describe the structuring of insect succession along with changes occurring in habitats of this irrigated dam farming system. The samples of insects were collected from 6 stations located inside the littoral (Station I), the sublittoral (Station II), the sewage channel or effluent (Stations III, IV, V) and the Mouhoun River (Station VI). The sampling method employed is a conventional method by the European Union named ” Directive Cadre sur l’Eau (DCE) ” recommended for the survey of benthic macro invertebrates. The survey reveals a community composed majorly of insects (more than 75%) variously distributed. On one hand at the shoreline and the coastal- adjoining zone in the dam, 23 families of macro invertebrates were identified; mostly belonging to the shoreline except for 10 families identified as endemic to the adjoining zone of the coastline. These two zones of the dam shelter the same malacological fauna consisting of the Unionidae, Lymneidae, Ampullariidae, Planorbidae, Valvatidae and Bulinidae families. The survey reveals otherwise that the differences between the Shannon biological diversity indices for these two zones were more pronounced during the month of July, the rainy period in the basin. On the other hand, concerning the dam-effluent-river continuum, a total of 35 families are sampled: 27 from dam water and stations near the irrigated zones; and 32 from the station of the sewage channel far from the irrigated zone and the river. The identification of individuals belonging to the family of the Baetidae and the Ephemerellidae (order of Ephemeroptera) in the river water highlights a subsequent reconstruction of the biodiversity in the river as the presence of both families is an indicator of fertile water. Further analysis on the spatial and temporal distribution involved 17 families out of the 35 sampled not common to all habitats. This lead to the conclusion that changes in natural habitats dictate the clustering patterns of macro invertebrates populations during the year long.
Key words: Macro invertebrates, succession, continuum, irrigation, dams, effluent, river, Volta basin, Burkina Faso