All Issues
Current Issue

.Reprint (PDF) (453 KB)

Search Pubmed for articles by:

SY Günal
H Saçmaci
S Saçmaci
M Mirza
F Ipekten

Search Google Scholar for articles by:

SY Günal
H Saçmaci
S Saçmaci
M Mirza
F Ipekten

International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health
Vol.5 (7),pp. 114-120, November 2018
ISSN 2360-8803
Available online at
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.

Original Research Article

Effect of heavy metals and sialic acid in multiple sclerosis

Servin Yeşil Günal*1, Hikmet Saçmacı2, Şerife Saçmacı3, Meral Mirza4 and Funda İpekten5

1Erciyes University, Vocational Health College 38039, Kayseri, Turkey.
2Department of Neurology, Bozok University of Medicine, 66200, Yozgat Turkey.
3Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University of Faculty of Science 38039, Kayseri, Turkey.
4Department of Neurology, Erciyes University of Medicine 38039, Kayseri Turkey.
5Department of Biostatistics, Erciyes University of Medicine 38039, Kayseri Turkey.

Corresponding Author Email: sgunal(at)

Tel.: +90 352 437 52 79

date Received: September 21, 2018     date Accepted: November 16, 2018     date Published: November 23, 2018


The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of heavy metals, sialic acid and other environmental factors in patients with multiple sclerosis. Fifty-two multiple sclerosis patients and 41 healthy volunteers as the control group were included in the study. Fasting saliva and urine samples were taken to determine sialic acid and heavy metals respectively.The levels of Ag (p<0.001), Al (p<0.001), As (p<0.001), Ba (p<0.05), Cd (p<0.005), Cs (p<0.001), Cu (p<0.05), Mn (p<0.05), Ni (p<0.001), Pb (p<0.001), Rb (p<0.05), Sr (p<0.05), and sialic acid levels (p<0.001) were found significantly higher, Ti (p<0.05) and Fe (p<0.05) lower in MS patients compared to the control group. There was a significant relationship between sialic acid, heavy metals levels, vegetable consumption, bowel habits and multiple sclerosis group. In this study, it was found that high levels of sialic acid and heavy metals, less vegetable consumption and bad bowel habits were risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

Key words: Vegetable consumption, heavy metals, multiple sclerosis, sialic acid, bad intestinal habits.

Günal et al