International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health
Vol.5 (2),pp. 25-31, February 2018
Available online at https://www.journalissues.org/IRJPEH/
Article 18/ID/JPR008/08 pages
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.
Original Research Article
Chemical composition and toxicity of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe, 1807) (Zingiberaceae) essential oil on the aquatic stages of the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii
Gisèle Aurélie Dadji FOKO1*, Annaïse Mfaleu TCHAKOUAN1,3, Henri ABE1,3, Francis ZEUKENG4, Hermann Parfait AWONO-AMBENE2, Flobert NJIOKOU3 and Joseph Lebel TAMESSE1
1Laboratory of Zoology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé I, P.O.Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
2Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale (OCEAC¬), P.O.Box 288, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
3Department of animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O Box 812, Cameroon.
4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O.Box. 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
*Corresponding Author Email: giselefoko(at)yahoo.fr
Overcoming the phenomenon of insecticides resistance in malaria vectors in Sub-Saharan tropics remains a great challenge to stop the burden of malaria disease. We tested the efficacy of Zingiber officinale as an alternative insecticide to synthetic pesticides and as a vector control tool against Anopheles coluzzii, the main malaria vector in Cameroon. The biotoxicity of Z. officinale essential oil on aquatic stages of An. coluzzii was assessed using WHO guidelines, and the essential oil active compounds were identified using Gas Chromatography coupling Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil of Z. officinale revealed an ovicidal and larvicidal property against developmental stages of An. coluzzii. A median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 17.81 ppm was obtained for eggs hatching potentials, while LC50 of 12.20, 12.12, 12.77 and 13.67 were obtained after exposure to first, second, third and fourth instars larvae respectively. All larval stages exhibited similar and full susceptibility to Z. officinale essential oil at 25 ppm. Overall, the essential oil extraction yield was 0.301% and 26 compounds were identified from their retention indices and mass spectra. Hydrocarbon monoterpenes (24.52%), oxygenated monoterpenes (44.93%) and hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (30.54%) constituted the major classes of the essential oil. β-curcumene (15.24%), geranial (15.16%), camphene (13.79%), neral (11.88%) and α-zingiberene (6.18%) were the most abundant oil compounds. In summary, Z. officinale essential oil revealed important ovicidal and larvicidal properties and stands as a promising tool to manage the phenomenon of insecticides resistant vectors in malaria endemic regions.
Key words: Zingiber officinale, essential oil, Anopheles coluzzii, plant biocides, malaria.