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OA Eleyele
OT Aladesanmi
AO Komolafe
RE Okonji

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OA Eleyele
OT Aladesanmi
AO Komolafe
RE Okonji

International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health
Vol.4 (6),pp. 096-111, July 2017
ISSN 2360-8803
Available online at
Article 16/ID/JPRH095/ 16 pages
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License.

Original Research Article

Toxicity of multivitamins production effluent: A study of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus (burchell, 1822)

1Oluwabunmi A. Eleyele, *1Omolara T. Aladesanmi, 2Akinwumi O. Komolafe, and 3Rapheal E. Okonji

1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State,Nigeria
2Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author Email: ttaladesanmi(at)

Tel.: +234-8035827392

date Received: November 17, 2016     date Accepted: January 20, 2017     date Published: July 10, 2017


The potential toxicity of multivitamins production effluent sourced from the discharge point of a pharmaceutical industry in Kwara State, Nigera was investigated using Clarias gariepinus. The growth performance, biochemistry of alterations and histopathological lesions in tissues and organs of post juvenile Clarias gariepinus was also analyzed. The impact of long term exposure to the effluent was evaluated using 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % concentrations of the effluent for 21 days, following a range finding test. C. gariepinus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of effluent showed increased growth performance and nutrient utilization at the 10% effluent concentration. Biochemical studies carried out on the gill, fin, liver and muscle showed that activities of anti- oxidative stress enzymes, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione-S- Transferase (GST), were higher in the liver of the effluent exposed C. gariepinus when compared to other tissues. Behavioural changes observed in fish exposed to all concentration of the effluent and control was normal. Histopathological examination of C. gariepinus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the effluent showed severe degenerating changes in liver and gills than muscles and fin. In this study, the effluent had pronounced effect on the growth and enzymatic activities of studied tissues and organs of C. gariepinus. Conclusively, this study revealed that the multivitamins production effluent, although treated is still a potent contaminant to post juvenile C. gariepinus.

Key words: Clarias gariepinus, pharmaceutical industries, multivitamins production effluent, enzyme, growth, histopathology

Eleyele et al