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International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health
Vol.1 (2), pp. 40-53, April 2014
ISSN 2350-1561
Article ID JPEH/14/015/, 14 pages
Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article. Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 International License

Original Research Paper

An assessment of the oil and toxic heavy metal profiles of sediments of the Benin River adjacent to a lubricating oil producing factory, Delta State, Nigeria

Accepted 26 March, 2014

Samuel O. Akporido*1 and Ayodele R. Ipeaiyeda2

1Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka,Nigeria.
2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author’s Email:


An assessment of the effect of effluent from a lubricating oil producing factory on sediments of the Benin River was carried out. Surface sediment samples were taken from the river-bed and the inter-tidal zone (area between high tide and low tide). The results of analysis of sediment physicochemical variables and toxic heavy metals gave the average values  of  parameters as: pH (4.9±1.1), total organic carbon (2.1±2.4%), total organic matter (3.8±4.2%), clay (1.54±0.44%), silt (0.58±0.44%), sand (97.8±0.9%), total organic extracts (TOE) (49600±12000 mg kg-1), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (41900±11000 mg kg-1), Ni (0.14±0.17 mg kg-1), Cd (0.08±0.09 mg kg-1), Pb (53±57 mg kg-1), Zn (92.1±170 mg kg-1),  and Cr (4.1±2.0 mg kg-1). The Pb level actually fell between the Effects Range Low and Effects Range Median levels of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sediment quality guidelines which indicated moderate (or intermediate) contamination of sediment by Pb.The geoaccumulation indexes of Pb and Zn for some sampling stations were between 3 and 4 thus giving a pollution ranking of moderately high to highly polluted to these sampling stations. The average concentration of TPH exceeded both the soil/sediment target and intervention values of the environmental guidelines and standards for the petroleum industry in Nigeria EGASPIN) for mineral oil in sediment. Sediments of the river in the study area are polluted with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.

Key words:  lubricating oil producing factory, sediment, total petroleum hydrocarbon,  physicochemical variables, toxic heavy metals, Benin River, receiving water body, sediment quality guidelines, geoaccumulation indexes

Key words:

Akporido and Ipeaiyeda